The philosopher Erich Fromm postulated EIGHT basic needs listed below. In his view, there is a strong sense that you must know yourself, and that from this knowledge base there must be a fruitful outlet for work in – and engagement with – the world.
Beyond the self which comprise two or three of the eight needs, all of the others have to do with relationships: to the world, and to other people, mainly. To editorialize: the individual is there and important to Fromm – know yourself! – but fulfillment comes from outside ourselves.
Here is the list:
Relatedness Relationships with others, care, respect, knowledge.
Transcendence Creativity, developing a loving and interesting life.
Rootedness Feeling of belonging.
Sense of Identity Seeing ourselves as a unique person and part of a social group.
Frame of orientation Understanding the world and our place in it.
Excitation and Stimulation Actively striving for a goal rather than simply responding.
Unity A sense of oneness between one person and the “natural and human world outside.”
Effectiveness The need to feel accomplished.
Engler, Barbara Personality Theories Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2008, p. 137 based on The Sane Society and The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness
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